Researchers find evidence that suggests not all sulfur in the Earths mantle

first_img Citation: Researchers find evidence that suggests not all sulfur in the Earth’s mantle came from meteorites (2013, September 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-evidence-sulfur-earth-mantle-meteorites.html The prevailing view among Earth scientists regarding the process that led to the current makeup of the planet is that most if not all of the metals that existed in the mantle were pulled inward once the core developed, leaving the mantle generally barren. Studies of rocks that have been pushed to the surface by volcanic blasts have shown, however, that there are indeed metals in the mantle. To explain this, scientists have noted that the proportion of metals to other material in chondrites (a type of meteorite) is of almost exactly the same proportion of such metals found in the mantle. Thus, it appears likely that such metals were in fact pulled from the mantle by the core but were subsequently replenished by millions of chondrites falling over millions of years onto Earth’s surface and then slowly seeping into the mantle. In this new effort, the researchers suggest that the prevailing view is wrong because they have found mantle samples with different proportions of sulfur.The researchers are basing their claim on a new type of examination of rock samples taken from mid-ocean ridge basalts from the South Atlantic Ridge. The samples were hand-picked by the team based on visual observations through a microscope. Next they were crushed and dissolved in a solution that caused the release of sulfur. Several further refinements were then performed each adding a higher degree of purification. Finally, the samples were tested for ratios of metals to other material in the original rock sample. The team found that the ratio of sulfur-34 to sulfer-32 in their mantle sample was 0.13 percent lower than that typically found with chondrites. This, they say, shows that is likely that the mantle retained some of its metals over the history of the planet, rather than giving them up to the core. © 2013 Phys.org Study sheds light on Earth’s early mantle Journal information: Nature More information: Non-chondritic sulphur isotope composition of the terrestrial mantle, Nature (2013) doi:10.1038/nature12490, www.nature.com/nature/journal/ … ull/nature12490.htmlAbstractCore–mantle differentiation is the largest event experienced by a growing planet during its early history. Terrestrial core segregation imprinted the residual mantle composition by scavenging siderophile (iron-loving) elements such as tungsten, cobalt and sulphur. Cosmochemical constraints suggest that about 97% of Earth’s sulphur should at present reside in the core, which implies that the residual silicate mantle should exhibit fractionated 34S/32S ratios according to the relevant metal–silicate partition coefficients2, together with fractionated siderophile element abundances. However, Earth’s mantle has long been thought to be both homogeneous and chondritic for 34S/32S, similar to Canyon Diablo troilite3, 4, 5, 6, as it is for most siderophile elements. This belief was consistent with a mantle sulphur budget dominated by late-accreted chondritic components. Here we show that the mantle, as sampled by mid-ocean ridge basalts from the south Atlantic ridge, displays heterogeneous 34S/32S ratios, directly correlated to the strontium and neodymium isotope ratios 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd. These isotope trends are compatible with binary mixing between a low-34S/32S ambient mantle and a high-34S/32S recycled component that we infer to be subducted sediments. The depleted end-member is characterized by a significantly negative ?34S of ?1.28?±?0.33‰ that cannot reach a chondritic value even when surface sulphur (from continents, altered oceanic crust, sediments and oceans) is added. Such a non-chondritic 34S/32S ratio for the silicate Earth could be accounted for by a core–mantle differentiation record in which the core has a 34S/32S ratio slightly higher than that of chondrites (?34S = +0.07‰). Despite evidence for late-veneer addition of siderophile elements (and therefore sulphur) after core formation, our results imply that the mantle sulphur budget retains fingerprints of core–mantle differentiation.center_img (Phys.org) —A team of researchers from Université Paris Diderot has found evidence that contradicts the prevailing view among scientists that virtually all of the sulfur found in the Earth’s mantle came from chondrites. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they found differences in sulfur proportions in soil samples taken from beneath the South Atlantic sea-bed compared to those of chondrites. Explore further Credit: NASA This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers find associations between structural variation in gut microbiome and host health

first_img Immune response to gut microbes may be early indicator of type 1 diabetes A team of researchers from Israel, the U.S., the Netherlands and Norway has found what they describe as associations between structural variation in the human gut microbiome and host health. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their genetic study of microbes living in the guts of large groups of people from Israel and the Netherlands, and what they found. In recent years, medical scientists have become increasingly focused on the microbes that live in and on our bodies with the goal of figuring out which are good or bad for us, and in what ways. In this new effort, the researchers sought to better understand gut bacteria that are genetically very similar. They wanted to know if such small differences are due to natural instances between species or if they simply represent the evolution of bacteria as they exist in the gut.To learn more, the researchers obtained 887 microbiome samples from people living in Israel and studied them using iterative coverage-based read assignment and SGV-Finder algorithms. They report that they found 7,479 variants in 56 of the species they isolated in the samples. They further report that of those found, they were able to identify 5,056 deletions in genomes and 2,424 variable structure variants, which, they note, were prevalent in genes that were involved in CRISPR and antibiotic functions. Those involved in housekeeping, on the other hand, were noticeably less prevalent. They further report that the structural variants they looked at harbored genes with distinct functions that could be associated with bacterial growth—possibly suggesting utility in adaption. They also found 124 associations between variants and diseases in the host such as those connected to body mass index, blood pressure and cholesterol levels.The researchers performed a similar analysis on microbiome samples obtained from 1000 people living in the Netherlands, and found many of the same structural variants with many of the same associations. They conclude by suggesting that their results support prior findings in studies of the mouse microbiome and that more research is needed to fully understand the role of genetically similar microbes living in our guts. Citation: Researchers find associations between structural variation in gut microbiome and host health (2019, March 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-associations-variation-gut-microbiome-host.html Journal information: Nature More information: David Zeevi et al. Structural variation in the gut microbiome associates with host health, Nature (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1065-yPress releasecenter_img © 2019 Science X Network Explore further Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Calling all Otakus in the Capital

first_imgNot sure what Otaku means? Ask an anime lover. Otaku is another name for an anime fan. The Anime Convention, the biggest and India’s only pop culture celebration, is all set to roll in its fourth year. Cinedarbaar’s flagship event, Anime Convention, for the first time will bring together, some of the best from Animation, Gaming, Comics, Graphic Novel and Mangas industries at one place. The convention this year boasts of its guests from Japan, Korea, USA, Switzerland and India to gather and provide as much knowledge, entertainment and experience to its visitors.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’With Korea as its country partner, the event in association with Korean Cultural Center, Delhi, will see Korean animation movies like S Robot Taekwon V by Kim Cheong-Gi, The King of Pigs by Yeon Sang-Ho and more. Karoke Lounge with KPOP music and dance, Korean Food, Korean Fashion Show (Hanbok), sessions on Korean Design and other activities promoting the rich Korean culture will fill up the three day event. The event will also  have  the world leaders in gaming, aminators and anime film directors taking part in the festival. Head over.last_img read more

Weekends like those

first_imgIf anyone offers you a weekend getaway in a very cool resort along with live music – we clearly don’t need too much convincing. Finally making time for Escape Summer Vibes (this comes as a precursor of sorts to the Escape Festival of Arts and Music which is scheduled for later this year in Naukuchiatal) we headed off to Seasons Golf Resort, Tarudhan Valley in Manesar on 17 May. The one-dayer featured most Escape essentials, new undiscovered talent, seasoned music makers,  several genres of music as always and as a killer addition – there was the pool. Nestled cozy in the middle of nowhere – this resort is a perfect, picturesque property that everyone should check out if they are looking for a little break from Delhi (we got there in an hour and a half flat!).   Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’By the time we got there and headed to the party, people had started trickling in. There were also guests who were there since afternoon and had had their cursory time in the pool and were now just relaxing with a drink in hand and waiting for the action to build up. and before you think of something weird, the action came in the form of some killer music from Soul’d Out (Blues/Jazz/Funk act), Fuzz Culture(a groovy ‘two piece’ electronic band), Vial/Audiogramme (psychedelic deep grooves and progressive psytrance), Ananda (Psy Trance), Minimal Monk, Tech Panda, Guy Called Sid Sal (exceptional groove, fused with his trademark sound somewhere between indie and electronic), Monolith (raw and grungy bass music), BlueOrb/BuffaPirate (new wave bass music, west coast glitch-hop, reggae/hip-hop infused dubstep, certified trap, ghetto disco & funk driven jackin house), Kumbhkaran, Marsh (progressive, deep house, electro, house sets) WhiteWizard (nature inspired Psy Trance). Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe festival also featured one of India’s first ambient stages which elevated the experience of the night. The ambient stage featured Gauge, Mr Melon, Agam Walia and Guy called Sid Sal. L Tochhawng aka Mama, Festival Director, Escape, said, ‘Our goal was to create an experiential evening that incorporated various elements of the main festival be it the music, the venue, the ambience, the food or the vibe itself. It was encouraging and wonderful to hear and see the positive and excited response of the people who partied on after the show into the wee hours of the morning.’ Rainer Stoll, MD of Season’s Group, said, “Escape is his and Mama’s brainchild. The whole idea was to merge great music with a great destination and give people something they would enjoy throughly. And Seasons’ has played host to numerous Escape festival and parties.’ He also said that dates of more festivals that work as a build-up to the main celebrations will be announced soon as will the dates of the Escape festival at Naukuchiatal. We clearly cannot wait!last_img read more

Govt likely to launch awareness campaign on disability issues soon

first_imgCentre is contemplating to launch a massive campaign to sensitise people on accessibility issues concerning persons with disabilities, besides creating an awareness on improving facilities for them.‘Sugamya Bharat’ (Accessible India), to be carried out by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, would highlight accessibility issues of differently-abled persons such as difficulty to access public transport and buildings.“We would be using platforms like television and social media. We may even have a brand ambassador for the campaign,” Awanish Kumar Awasthi, Joint Secretary, Department of Disability Affairs, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, told PTI. Schools and higher educational institutions would be the main focus of the campaign, he said, adding that campaigns would also be carried out at block and taluk levels.last_img read more

Education dept puts teacher recruitment on hold in Daribhit High School till

first_imgKolkata: State Home Secretary Atri Bhattacharya on Tuesday wrote to the Railways including the Metro, requesting them to make necessary arrangements to ensure normal running of trains.The letter was sent to the General Managers of Eastern Railway, South Eastern Railway and Northeast Frontier Railway, as well as the General manager of Metro Railway.The letter further stated that the district and government Railway Police have been instructed to ensure that there is no interruption or stoppage of train movement due to squatting on railway tracks or similar types of blockades. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe Home Secretary’s letter assumes significance as train services of SER, particularly in the Kharagpur division, was badly affected on Monday till Tuesday afternoon, due to blockade by an umbrella organisation of the Adivasis, who demanded official recognition of their language.According to Nabanna sources, the state administration was displeased with the efforts of the railway police in removing the protesters who had encroached on the tracks at places like Nekusini, Khemasuli, Balichak and Salboni, where the encroachment continued till Tuesday afternoon. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedPassengers at Howrah Station were deeply inconvenienced due to the series of cancellations. “I had to take my sick father for treatment. I waited for so many hours but to no avail,” a passenger said.A number of passengers who arrived at Howrah Station in the late afternoon, complained of scarcity of food and water as they remained stuck for several hours.As many as six long distance trains were cancelled by SER on Tuesday. The Howrah–Secunderabad Falaknuma Express, the Howrah–Bhubaneswar Jan Shatabdi Express, Howrah-Yesvantpur Duranto Express and Haldia-Asansol Express were cancelled for want of link rake. The Shalimar-Bhubaneswar Examination Special and the Santragachi-Paradeep Express were also in the cancel list. A number of trains that were rescheduled, included the Shalimar-Chennai Central Express that left Shalimar at 18.30 hrs instead of 12.10 hrs, the Howrah-YesvantpurHumsafar Express that left Howrah at 20.55 hrs instead of 12.40 hrs and the Howrah-Purulia Express that left Howrah at 19.15 hrs instead of 16.50 hrs.A spokesperson of SER said that some passenger special trains were pressed into service by SER that included Howrah-Kanniyakumari Specialfrom Howrah at 16.10 hrs and Santragachi-Puducherry Special from Santragachi at 15.50 hrs.last_img read more

Celebrating drama in diversity

first_imgThe Mahindra Excellence in Theatre Awards (META), a weeklong national theatre festival and awards programme, has announced the list of nominations for its 13th edition. The ten nominated productions, representing a cross-section of India spanning diverse and wide-ranging subjects, will be showcased at the META Festival from April 13 to 18 at New Delhi’s Kamani Auditorium and Shri Ram Centre, where they will be performing for an esteemed panel of jury members and a discerning audience. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfEach of the ten nominations expresses the cultural sensibilities of the region it comes from along with strong infusions of reinterpretations in classical and modern theatre. This year’s final 10 nominations feature plays in Assamese, Bengali, English, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam and Manipuri as well as a non-verbal movement theatre production. The plays explore subjects as far and wide as gender identity through Indian mythology, the machinations of the entertainment industry in how they treat their female leads, folk literature from Bengal, the balance between the female (prakriti) and male (purusha) energies, the politics of religion and the religion of politics and its division of society, the brutality against women by Japanese imperialists during World War II, Greek tragedies reinterpreted, German philosophy revisited and last, but not the least, the flamboyant playing style of veteran Colombian goalkeeper, José René Higuita Zapata. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive Promoted by the Mahindra Group as part of its cultural outreach and curated by Teamwork Arts, META rewards and recognizes the best productions and performances, along with their makers and facilitators, providing a major boost to the indigenous theatre industry, with an aim to increase not just awareness but also the appreciation of theatre in India. META, a must-do for theatre enthusiasts and professionals across the country, received over 330 entries this year, from more than 280 theatre groups across 22 states in India representing more than 20 official Indian languages and 10 regional dialects. After being viewed by a selection committee comprising eminent theatre personalities such as Bharati Achrekar, Chandradasan A, Swaroopa Ghose, Vikram Phukan, and Vivek Mansukhani, the ten productions that have been nominated for the Awards represent the best in Indian theatre staged across the country over the past year.The Umbilical Theatre (Hojang Taret), along with Director Oasis Sougaijam and Theatre Artistree (Caucasian Chalk Circle), along with Director Chandra Keerthi B, are both first-time entrants at META. Other first-time nominations include Abhigyanm production (Comfort Women: An Untold History) with Director Ranhang Choudhary, Indianostrum Theatre (Karuppu) with Director Koumarane Valavaneand, and Natak Company (Item) with Director Kshitish Date. Black Theatre (Nona) is a first-time entrant too, but with veteran Director Jino Joseph who won the 2015 META for Best Director, Best Production and Best Original Script with Matthi.META 2018 will give away awards in 14 categories including the Lifetime Achievement Award as well as 13 competitive categories of Best Play, Best Director, Best Stage Design, Best Light Design, Best Innovative Sound Design, Best Costume Design, Best Actor in a Lead Role (Male/Female), Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Male/Female), Best Original Script, Best Ensemble and Best Choreographer. The awards will culminate with a Red-Carpet Awards Night on Thursday, April 19.last_img read more

Transferred police personnel assume duty

first_imgKolkata: In a major reshuffle in the IPS rank, the state government awarded posting to four IPS officers including the then Commissioner of Police(CP) of Kolkata and Bidhannagar who were removed by the Election Commission on Friday late night. Jayanta Kumar Basu, who was serving as Director, Directorate of Economic Offences, was appointed as ADG, Establishment. On Friday, the Election Commission had removed CP Kolkata Anuj Sharma and CP, Bidhannagar, Gyanwant Singh from their respective posts along with two IPS officers holding the post of Superintendent of Police (SP) in Bolpur and Diamond Harbour police district respectively. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataAccording to the order published on Saturday by the state Home & Hill Affairs department, Anuj Sharma has been posted as the Additional Director General (ADG), Operations, whereas Gyanwant has been posted as the Director of the Directorate of Economic Offences in the rank of ADG. Apart from the two top cops, SP Diamond Harbour S Selvamurugan has been transferred to the post of Commandant (CO) of State Armed Police (SAP), 6th Battalion. Avvaru Rabindranath who was posted in Bidhannagar Police has been made SP Birbhum replacing Shyam Singh who has been transferred to CO, SAP 13th Battalion. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateMeanwhile, as per the EC order, Rajesh Kumar took over charge as Kolkata CP and Natarajan Ramesh Babu assumed charge as CP, Bidhannagar on Saturday afternoon. Kumar, after taking over charge, said he would ensure conductance of free and fair elections in the state. “Kolkata Police is a prestigious unit and its system is unquestionable. Several steps have already taken by the Kolkata Police which are very good and effective,” he added.last_img read more

TMC expels Hill leader Sarda Subba

first_imgDarjeeling: Sarda Rai Subba of the Darjeeling District Hill Trinamool Congress has been expelled from the party for anti-party activities. This comes in the wake of Subba filing her nomination as an Independent candidate for the Darjeeling Assembly bypolls, going against party decision. TMC has not fielded any candidate for the Hill bypoll but is supporting Binay Tamang who is also contesting as an Independent candidate. In the Lok Sabha election, the GJM (Binay faction) had not fielded any candidate, whereas GJM MLA from Darjeeling Amar Singh Rai was fielded as a TMC candidate supported by GJM. On the last day of filing nominations Subba, the TMC Women’s Wing president, Darjeeling, filed nomination as an Independent candidate. She did not withdraw her nomination despite repeated requests. A press release from Aroop Biswas, general secretary and Observer, Darjeeling District Trinamool Congress, stated that Subba is being expelled from the party for 6 years.last_img read more

Awareness initiatives for environment in city schools and markets on KMC radar

first_imgKolkata: The Environment department of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) will carry out awareness programmes regarding environmental issues through out the year. There will be programmes at each of the 16 boroughs and awareness activities will be carried out in schools and market places.The observance kicked off with a programme in front of KMC headquarters to mark the occasion of World Environment Day on June 5 in presence of Mayor Firhad Hakim and other senior officials of the civic body and a number of school students. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe programme was not held on June 5 as there was a national holiday due to Eid which fell on the same day. “There will be awareness activities at the borough level to make people aware of the evil effects of air pollution, plastic pollution, pollution from construction materials etc. The borough with the best awareness programme will be awarded by the civic body,” said Swapan Samaddar, MemberMayor in Council (Environment ) said. Sammadar added that the civic body will reach out to schools in the city and market places too. “We are stressing upon awareness campaigns in schools as we feel that it is the students who can deliver the message of environment issues in the best possible way. Students will tell their parents about the need of planting more trees and preserve greenery,” the Mayor said. Plantation programmes were held across the city on Friday and school students were roped in large numbers. Immediately after taking oath as the city’s Mayor in December 2018 Hakim had announced that the civic body will be waiving property tax upto 90 percent if somebody takes to urban forestry by planting big trees on his/ her land. The tax deduction will be on the basis of the land where he takes up the plantation programme.last_img read more