DefinitionThe spinal cord contains the nerves that carry messages between your brain and body. The cord passes through your neck and back. A spinal cord injury is very serious because it can cause loss of movement (paralysis) below the site of the injury.Alternative NamesSpinal cord injury, SCICausesA spinal cord injury may be caused by:Bullet or stab woundTraumatic injury to the face, neck, head, chest, or back (for example, a car accident)Diving accidentElectric shockExtreme twisting of the middle of the bodyLanding on the head during a sports injuryFall from a great heightSymptomsSymptoms of a spinal cord injury may include:Head that is in an unusual positionNumbness or tingling that spreads down an arm or legWeaknessDifficulty walkingParalysis (loss of movement) of arms or legsLoss of bladder or bowel controlShock (pale, clammy skin; bluish lips and fingernails; acting dazed or semiconscious)Lack of alertness (unconsciousness)Stiff neck, headache, or neck painFirst AidNever move anyone who you think may have a spinal injury, unless it is absolutely necessary. For example, if you need to get the person out of a burning car, or help them to breathe.Keep the person absolutely still and safe until medical help arrives.Call the local emergency number, such as 911.Hold the persons head and neck in the position in which they were found.Do nottry to straighten the neck. Do not allow the neck to bend or twist.Do not allow the person to get up and walk unassisted.If the person is not alert or responding to you:advertisementCheck the persons breathing and circulation. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.Do nottilt the head back when doing CPR. Do not do rescue breathing, do chest compressions only.Do not roll the person over unless the person is vomiting or choking on blood, or you need to check for breathing. If you need to roll the person over:Have someone assist you.One person should be located at the persons head; the other at the persons side.Keep the persons head, neck, and back in line while you roll him or her onto one side.Do NotDo notbend, twist, or lift the persons head or body.Do notattempt to move the person before medical help arrives unless it is absolutely necessary.Do notremove a football helmet or pads if a spinal injury is suspected.When to Contact a Medical ProfessionalCall your local emergency number (such as 911) if you think someone has a spinal cord injury.Do notmove the person unless there is urgent danger.PreventionThe following may lower your risk of spinal injury:Wear seat belts.Do not drink and drive.Do not dive into pools, lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water, particularly if you cannot determine the depth of the water or if the water is not clear.Do not tackle or dive into a person with your head.ReferencesHockberger RS, Kaji AH, Newton E. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 40.Torg JS. Cervical Spine Injuries: 1. Cervical spine injuries in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 16, section A.Pizzutillo PD, Herman MJ. Cervical spine injuries: 2. Cervical spine injuries in the child. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez’s Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2009:chap 16, section A.Review Date:4/16/2013Reviewed By:C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.